Crafts and Industries through the Ages

State and Society


 Weapons

Pharaonic:

The earliest tool the Egyptian used was of a defensive nature. First, it was stone weapons such as the axe and arrowheads which were later made of copper and bronze.

These different collections of weapons were varied in use, some were long-range weapons such as bows and arrows and the other group was of a medium range such as daggers, sticks, axes, and scimitars, which were adopted from Asian soldiers for close combat.  Later, soldiers were equipped with composite bows and long metal-tipped arrows stored in leather quivers in the chariots .
   

Greco- Roman:

When Alexander the Great entered Egypt, there was an informal Egyptian army because of the Persian occupation. Many weapons were used in the Pharaonic Period and continued in the Greco-Roman Period such as axes, mace heads, bows, arrows, shields, daggers, chariots, swords, and helmets. New types of helmets were used such as the Macedonian helmet, Phrygian helmet, and Roman helmet .

In the Greco-Roman Period, weapons were divided into four groups :

1- Fighting weapons such as truncheon, axe, daggers, knives and spears .

2- Battling weapons: such as arrows, bows, slings, pikes, cross bows, flamed arrows, and flame carriers .

3- Defending weapons: such as shields, metal vests, chain nails, helmets, and leg protectors .

4- Siege weapons: ladders, chariots, and battleships .

5- Mangonels appeared as a new weapon in war especially for destroying fortresses .

6- Elephants were used as a fighting weapon especially in the Rafah Battle .

On the other hand, there were some famous Egyptian generals such as Hor-Sa-Toto who was a general in the Ptolemaic army about 150 B.C ,

The Thebian region enjoyed self-control between 206 - 186 B.C with an independent army and two Egyptian governors .

There were many revolutions in the Ptolemaic and Roman Period led by Egyptians

such as the revolution of the Egyptain Dionysos Petoserapis

during the reign of the Ptolemy VI between 166 - 165 B.C .

Also, he profited from the clash between the brothers Ptolemy VII and Ptolemy VIII to seize

authority over Egypt


Coptic

Weapons factories .

In the 4th century, the infantry, including Copts, wore armour or ironclad clothing. In the 6th century, the calvery carried bows, arrows, swords, and javelins .

There were also groups of Coptic soldiers who dealt with heavy arms characterized by the so-called battering ram.  There existed different kinds of military machines which could throw arrows and javelins. There were also ballistas for throwing big stones to crush strong fortification walls ..


Islamic: 

Throughout the Islamic Period, many types of weapons were used. Some were defensive and others for attacking the enemy. Such weapons underwent development, especially the traditional weapons which existed before Islam. During the Mamluk period, Egypt used fire weapons such as cannons, catapults, and gun powder, while during the Ottoman Period, Egyptians knew of a new sort of fire weapon: naval mines. Moreover, Souq As-Selah was the place where weapons were fabricated, sold, and bought under the supervision of As-Selahdar.     
    

Modern:


Establishment of the ministry of military production

Traditional Culture: 

Stick is made of a thick wooden branch of a tree

Makrouta is a gun after cutting part of its tube

Al Fard is a special sort of a pistol



State and Society

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